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  Dissemination items
Dissemination Meeting

Outcomes of PHASELIEU
Chairpersons: C. De La Cuadra (Partner 1), A. Maquet (Partner 4)
Participants: PHASELIEU partners and linked organizations; invited scientists; agronomists; representatives of agricultural bodies; seed companies; growers, processors and bean traders; specialised journalists

Outcomes of the Workshops and Meetings
A. M. De Ron (Coordinator / Partner 1)

Technical Reports
A. M. De Ron (Coordinator / Partner 1)

Handbooks and Catalogues
J. M. Amurrio (Coordinator /Partner 1), A. Maquet (Partner 4)

Electronic means - web site - CD-ROM
A. M. De Ron (Coordinator / Partner 1)

Socio - economical outcomes of PHASELIEU: bean for human consumption - a basis for food security
C. De La Cuadra (Partner 1), M. Múzquiz (Partner 6)

El futuro de la fijación de Nitrógeno en la judía.
J. J. Drevon (Invited scientist)

Relevance of the genetic improvement of bean for human consumption: a global perspective
S. P. Singh (Invited scientist)

Of over 30 different Phaseolus species of American origin only five (P. acutifolius, P. coccineus, P. lunatus, P. polyanthus, and P. vulgaris) are cultivated for human consumption. P. vulgaris or common bean is by far the most important, occupying more than 85% of the area planted to Phaseolus beans worldwide. There are two principal types of common bean, namely garden or snap and dry bean. Dry bean is grown in more than 15 million ha annually. Although less important, there is also substantial production and consumption of snap bean.
Common beans are rich in protein, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. Moreover, they are free from cholesterol, have low glicimic index, and are rich in folate and anti-oxidants. Thus, consumption of beans helps reduce the risk of coronary diseases and cancer.
Most tropical and sub-tropical germplasm of common bean and its related species are highly sensitive to long-day length. Landrace cultivars often have climbing or semi-climbing growth habits and they are susceptible to major diseases, insect pests, drought, and soil mineral deficiencies and toxicities. Moreover, dry beans take considerably longer to cook and contain flatulents.
Since the initiation of bean genetics and breeding a century ago, substantial genetic progress has been achieved. For example, in Europe, Japan, and North America early and medium maturity cultivars adapted to higher latitudes with erect bush growth habit and resistance to diseases such as bean common mosaic, rust, anthracnose, and/or common bacterial blight have been developed. For the tropics of Latin America, dry bean cultivars with resistance to leafhoppers, bruchids, and bean pod weevil also are available.
Other advances in genetics and breeding of common bean include: (1) improved understanding of origin, domestication and organization of genetic diversity within and between species, (2) pathogenic variation and co-evolution, (3) identification of useful germplasm, (4) genetics of important traits and linkage maps, (5) arcelin and DNA-based markers for indirect selection for several important traits, and (6) alternative breeding methods.
Availability of improved cultivars has helped expand the regions of adaptation and area planted to common bean in several countries including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, China, Iran, South Africa, Turkey, and the USA, among others. Nonetheless, despite the fact that bean consumption in some developed countries (e.g. USA) has been increasing steadily in recent years, consumption per capita in most countries in Latin America and Africa is decreasing and many countries, including Europe, continue to import large quantities of both dry and snap beans.
Among major challenges facing common bean researchers are how to develop high yielding, high quality cultivars less dependent on water, fertilizer, pesticides, and human labor for sustainable farming systems. These sustainable systems will reduce health and environmental hazards, and production costs. Also, breeding for high yield, improved canning, cooking, and processing qualities, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses should broaden cultivars adaptation and stability of performance, and increase profitability for growers and processors.
Useful genes for resistance to pests and other stresses and agronomic traits have been identified in the wild and cultivated primary gene pool of common bean and its related species in the secondary and tertiary gene pools. Nonetheless, a great majority of common bean and related species germplasm still remains to be properly collected, characterized and utilized in genetic improvement of common bean.
For introgression and pyramiding of useful genes for specific traits (i.e., parental germplasm development or pre-breeding) and for simultaneous improvement of multiple agronomic traits (i.e., cultivar development) there is a need for an integrated genetic improvement (Singh, 1999). The uses of a three-tiered breeding approach (Kelly et al., 1998) or its modification will be the most appropriate. Moreover, there is a need for:
1. Reliable and cost-effective direct screening methods for reaction to diseases, insects, drought, heat, cold, and soil mineral deficiencies and toxicities.
2. Reliable and cost-effective indirect screening methods: DNA-based markers for agronomic traits.
3. Reliable and cost-effective plant regeneration and transformation systems.
4. Integrated complete linkage map of common bean and related species.
5. Adequate sustained long term funding for inter-disciplinary research and development programs.
6. Genuine collaboration among governmental and private institutions dedicated to agriculture and rural development, bean producers, processors, marketers, and researchers.

Suggested References
Kelly, J.D., J.M. Kolkman and K. Schneider. 1998. Breeding for yield in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Euphytica 102:343-356.
Kelly, J.D. and P.N. Miklas. 1999. Marker-assisted selection. p.93-123. In S. Singh (ed.) Common bean improvement in the twenty-first century. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, Netherlands.
Miklas, P.N. 2000. Use of Phaseolus germplasm in breeding pinto, great northern, pink, and red bean for the Pacific Northwest and intermountain region. p. 13-29. In S.P. Singh (ed.) Bean research, production and utilization. Proceedings of the Idaho Bean Workshop. Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID.
S.P.Singh (ed.). 1999. Common bean improvement in the twenty-first century. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, Netherlands. Singh, S.P. 1999. Integrated genetic improvement. p. 133-165. In S.P.Singh (ed.) Common bean improvement in the twenty-first century. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, Netherlands.
S.P. Singh (ed.). 2000. Bean research, production and utilization. Proceedings of the Idaho Bean Workshop. Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID.